Iron ore reserves are normally found within a few meters from the ground surface, and most of the major mines of the world are operating an opencut system, which requires little sophistication, except in terms of the equipment used and the quantities needed to be mined for operations to be cost-effective. This chapter will look at case studies that define how mining of ore is conducted today. Examples of mining sites are described from the major mining areas of the Pilbara in Western Australia and Minas Gerais in Brazil. The deep mining of iron ore is unusual in the modern era, but in northern Sweden, ore is mined from considerable depth largely aided by the application of automation and remote control equipment. Kiruna has been chosen as the example for a more detailed review of underground techniques. However, in order to provide an historical context of the early smaller scale of iron ore mining, the chapter begins by examining two examples of historic underground mining in the United Kingdom, these being the underground mining of iron ore in Cleveland and also the Frodingham Ironstone of North Lincolnshire.