Ilmenite, as the main titanium source in practice, is of critical importance in meeting the pressing needs of various titanium associated fields. Herein, a review of ilmenite mineral processing by flotation is conducted to systemise the development of technologies in ilmenite upgrading. It proves that Australia and China are the top two countries with higher titanium reserves than other countries but with different metallogenic mechanisms. The basic properties of ilmenite and its metallogenic mechanism codetermine the final choice for ilmenite-containing ores beneficiation. Flotation has been an indispensable step for ilmenite upgrading as time goes and many collector types that can float ilmenite in different pH ranges have been developed. To date, various surface modification methods have proven to be a research hotspot. How to improve the flotability of fine ilmenite and comprehensive recycling of those historic ilmenite-containing tailings are much deserved in future.